AASLD 2014: Sofosbuvir/ Ledipasvir + Ribavirin Cures Most Post-Transplant HCV Recurrence

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An interferon-free regimen of sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir (Harvoni) taken with ribavirin for 12 or 24 weeks led to sustained virological response in nearly all HCV genotype 1patients with fibrosis or less-advanced liver cirrhosis, researchers reported at the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) Liver Meeting this month in Boston. Response rates fell for people with more severe cirrhosis and signs of liver decompensation, but still a majority were cured.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) almost always re-infects the new liver graft after transplantation, often resulting in rapid progression to severe fibrosis or cirrhosis and potential graft loss. Liver transplant recipients have historically been difficult to treat because they do not respond as well to interferon-based therapy and many cannot tolerate its side effects. Now, however, new direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) can be combined in interferon-free regimens that produce high cure rates and are very well-tolerated.

K. Rajender Reddy from the University of Pennsylvania reported preliminary results from a multicenter trial in which people with recurrent HCV after liver transplants were treated with Gilead Sciences' recently approved coformulation containing the nucleotide HCV polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir and the HCV NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir.

This study included 223 liver transplant recipients. Most were white men and the median age was approximately 60 years. More than 80% had previously been treated for hepatitis C. About three-quarters had HCV subtype 1b, one-quarter had subtype 1a, and 3 patients had genotype 4.

The median time from transplantation to treatment was about 3 years for patients with fibrosis, but closer to 7 years for those with cirrhosis. Few people with fibrosis or CPT class A cirrhosis had ascites (abdominal fluid accumulation) or hepatic encephalopathy (brain impairment) -- signs of liver decompensation -- but this rose to more than half of those with CPT class B and about 90% of those with CPT class C. MELD scores (a biomarker index with higher scores indicating worse liver function) were <10 for a majority of CPT class A patients, while scores of 10-15 predominated among people with class B or C, and one-third of class C patients had scores of 16-20 or 21-25.

Participants were randomly assigned to receive sofosbuvir/ledipasvir plus ribavirin for either 12 or 24 weeks. People with fibrosis or CPT class A started on weight-based ribavirin, while those with more severe cirrhosis started at 600 mg/day and escalated to the standard dose if tolerated.

Results

"In patients with recurrent HCV post transplantation, treatment with [sofosbuvir/ledipasvir + ribavirin] for 12 or 24 weeks resulted in high rates of SVR12, irrespective of disease severity or duration of therapy," the researchers concluded.

11/25/14

Reference

KR Reddy, GT Everson, SL Flamm, et al. Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir with Ribavirin for the Treatment of HCV in Patients with Post Transplant Recurrence: Preliminary Results of a Prospective, Multicenter Study. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) Liver Meeting. Boston, November 7-12, 2014. Abstract 8.